Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. In Immigrants in Prairie Cities, Royden Loewen and Gerald Friesen analyze the processes of cultural interaction and adaptation that unfolded in these urban centres and describe how this model of diversity has Over the course of the twentieth century, sequential waves of immigrants from Europe, Asia, Latin America, and Africa settled in the cities of the Canadian Prairies.
Paperback , pages. Ethnic Diversity in Twentieth-Century Canada. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Immigrants in Prairie Cities: Ethnic Diversity in Twentieth-Century Canada In Immigrants in Prairie Cities, Royden Loewen and Gerald Friesen analyze the processes of cultural interaction and adaptation that unfolded in these urban centres and describe how this model of diversity has changed over time. Access Check. And They Called Me Slim.
The Executive Protection Professionals Manual. The devastating effects of colonialism and intertribal warfare also contributed to the decline, such that by the late s, the Indigenous populations of North America encompassing the United States, Canada and Greenland had reached a low of just , people in By the first two decades of the 20th century, it had rebounded, embarking on a long-term trajectory of growth.
The reasons for this growth included high fertility rates and declining death rates, both of which were brought on by gradual socio-economic improvements. Beginning in the 17th century, the settlement of Canada by Europeans resulted from the agricultural and industrial revolutions in Western Europe and the subsequent expansion of the European population. In , at the founding of New France, Samuel de Champlain and his companions numbered a mere Only eight of these individuals survived the first winter in the new colony.
By , this small group of settlers, combined with periodic arrivals from France, had grown phenomenally to a population of 3, By the end of the 19th century, the population had multiplied to , Most of this growth was the result of exceptionally high fertility and relatively low death rates.
For example, between its founding in and , New France received approximately 25, immigrants, but only about 15, settled permanently. Of these settlers, 10, left descendants in the colony. The overwhelming majority of the early migrants — originating mainly from Normandy, the area around Paris and central western France — were men: soldiers, indentured workers, clerics and even some prisoners. From to , however, the French Crown subsidized the immigration of hundreds of young women of marriageable age. The population of Canada in was just under 76, people, growing to about , by Between and , the population grew rapidly at an average annual growth rate of 3.
Growth continued at a brisk pace in the period from to at an average of 3.
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As the 20th century approached, the population experienced declining birth and death rates, though in absolute terms it continued to grow. Between and , there occurred significant growth of nearly 3 per cent per year as a result of heavy immigration , much of it directed to the Western provinces see also History of Settlement in the Canadian Prairies. This was a period of low fertility and low immigration. Population growth slowed considerably. However, the long-term decline in fertility was interrupted by the Second World War.
Following the end of the war, the country enjoyed a prolonged period of economic growth, which stimulated significant increases in immigration — mainly from Europe — and fertility. Consequently, during the —61 decade, the population grew at an average of 2. In , the population numbered 18 million people. The year marked the end of the postwar baby boom. Since the early s, the population has continued growing, though at relatively lower rates compared to earlier periods.
The census counted a population of nearly Population growth is a function of two components: natural increase, i. With an annual rate of natural increase around 1 per cent since , Canada is characteristic of an industrial, urban population that has experienced the demographic transition from high to low levels of fertility and mortality.
Historically, natural increase accounted for about two-thirds of population growth.
However, since , this component has decreased to approximately one-third, while the net migratory gain has become increasingly important. Two factors lie at the heart of this change in the relative importance of the two components of growth. First is the rapid decrease in fertility in the late s and 70s, and its fairly constant level since then, which has resulted in falling annual numbers of births, from a historic peak level of , in , to an average level of below , per year. Second, the number of deaths on an annual basis increased during this same period due to an aging population.
Mortality levels have been declining since the latter part of the 19th century.
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The major gains in life expectancy since can be attributed to developments in public health , including childhood immunization, improved nutritional and personal hygiene levels, better housing and rising standards of living. Medical innovations — particularly the discovery of antibiotics in the s — have played a major role in explaining life expectancy gains. The most dramatic improvements in mortality have resulted from reductions in infant mortality and a consequential increase in life expectancy.
In , the number of years a person could expect to live at birth was 60 years for males and By , life expectancies had risen to Between and , the gain in overall life expectancy for Canadians was Nearly half of the improvement occurred between and , again largely as a function of declines in infant mortality rates. By comparison, declining death rates from circulatory diseases account for most of the gains in life expectancy since By the early s, infant mortality had fallen considerably.
Today, death rates for Canadian infants are among the lowest in the world, at 4. Survival rates among the population aged 60 and over also increased in the second half of the 20th century.
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In comparison to the United States, life expectancy in Canada has consistently been longer, though quite similar to many European countries e. Today, the highest life expectancy in the world is enjoyed by Japanese females. After infants, the next population subgroup to experience major gains in survival probabilities from about midway through the 20th century were women, especially those in their childbearing years.
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Due to population growth and an aging population, the number of deaths has been increasing annually, reaching , in This is a significant increase from the , total in Today, the leading causes of death among Canadians are degenerative diseases. In , cancer alone accounted for about 30 per cent of all deaths, while cardiovascular complications, including heart disease and stroke, were responsible for an additional 25 per cent of all deaths.
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As Canada developed and living conditions improved, birthrates declined steadily from their early levels of around 50 births per 1, population. By the s, the birth rate had dropped below 30, and by had reached a low of 20 births per 1, population.
5.8 Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration
The Second World War revived the economy and reversed the declining trend in birth rates; they reached record highs during the baby boom — This decline occurred in a context of significant social change, especially with respect to the role and status of women in society. All of these factors contributed to a decline in fertility rates.
Since the mids, the number of births has been below , per year, and the total fertility rate has ranged between 1. For example, the married cohort of consists of the people who married in In the case of births, people born within a specified year are referred to as a generation. Method used for population estimates or projections that is based on the components of demographic change and a base population as input. The phrase "cohort-component method" is usually restricted to methods projecting the future evolution of cohorts by age and sex, as opposed to other methods, such as microsimulation, that also use components of population growth but that project the demographic destiny of individuals.
Any class of event that generates population changes. For example, births, deaths and migration are components that modify either the size of the total population or its composition by age and sex. Canadian citizen or immigrant who left Canada to establish permanent residence in another country. In this document, the notion of ethnocultural diversity refers to diversity as it relates to visible minority groups, generation status, religion, birthplace and mother tongue.
Clearly, this operational definition does not cover all forms of ethnocultural diversity, which could therefore be defined through other variables. A demographic phenomenon related to live births that can be considered from the point of view of women, the couple and, very occasionally, men. Refer to a variable specified within the framework of the Official Languages Act used to identify the first official language spoken by a person i.
This information is derived from three linguistic questions from the census in order : knowledge of the official languages, the language first learned at home and still understood, and the language spoken most often at home. In the context of Demosim, immigrants are the first generation; the second generation refers to non-immigrants born in Canada to at least one foreign-born parent; the generations that follow third or more comprise non-immigrants born in Canada to two Canadian-born parents.
A more detailed version of this variable split the first and second generations into two distinct groups: generations 1 and 1. According to this version of the variable, generation 1 refers to immigrants admitted at age 15 or more, while generation 1.